There are some instances when your eye discharge changes. There is more of it; it’s a different color; it’s a different consistency; or it happens when you are awake. This can indicate that your eye is infected or injured, which might be a very serious issue requiring immediate medical attention. (Learn More)
To prevent infections or safely manage normal discharge, keep your hands clean, do not pick at your eyes, keep them hydrated with artificial tears as needed, and wipe away rheum from sleep with a clean, damp cloth. (Learn More)
Your eye’s discharge can indicate your eye health, so do not hesitate to seek treatment if there are changes or other symptoms. (Learn More)
What Is Eye Discharge? Is it Normal?
Everyone has discharge from their eyes, in the form of “sleep,” mucus, crust, sand, rheum, or a sludgy substance that is present in the corners of your eyes and on your eyelashes when you wake up. This discharge is a collection of tears, oil, skin cells, and debris that accumulates in and around your eyes as you sleep.
Because you do not blink tears, and the detritus they collect, out of your eyes while you are asleep, this mixture collects near the tear ducts. When you wake up, you have some crust or goopy areas, which can be easily brushed away. This substance is often white, off-white, or slightly yellow in tint.
However, there are some kinds of eye discharge that indicate a more serious condition. If your morning eye discharge turns yellow or green, for example, you may have an infection. If your eyes discharge more material than normal, this may indicate problems with your eyes. Discharge during the day, while you are awake, is a sign of a more serious condition.
If you understand why your eyes produce discharge and what it can indicate, you can get medical treatment when you need it.
Eye Discharge May Have a Medical Cause That Requires Treatment
Generally, some rheum collected around your eyes, eyelids, and eyelashes is fine when you wake up. However, if you wake up with different-colored rheum, blurry vision, light sensitivity, or pain in your eyes, this may indicate an eye infection or another serious eye condition, which is also producing discharge.
Some causes of eye discharge that need treatment include:
- Contact lenses. Even if you do not have an infection from wearing your contact lenses too long, simply wearing them for several hours may irritate or inflame your eyes. This can lead to more eye discharge or crust than normal when you wake up in the morning. Do not sleep in your contact lenses unless your optometrist recommends a gas-permeable variety that is okay to sleep in. If you experience a lot more rheum in the morning, even when you do not have your contact lenses in, you may want to switch to daily disposable lenses.
- Chronic dry eyes. There are several potential causes of dry eyes, but the condition may lead to sluggish or thick tears, which can increase the amount of “sleep” collected around your eyes and eyelashes in the morning. Ask your optometrist about the best ways to treat chronic dry eye. A short-term or additional course of treatment may include over-the-counter saline eyedrops.
- Allergies: Sometimes called allergic conjunctivitis, allergies triggered by plants, animals, or dust can cause watering in the eyes, redness, itching, and eye discharge. This may affect one or both eyes, and rheum is typically not an abnormal color. Antihistamines, eye drops, or other allergy treatments can manage this side effect.
- Conjunctivitis: An eye infection known as pink eye, conjunctivitis is accompanied by redness, swelling, pain, itching, or the feeling of grit in one or both eyes. Without treatment, this infection can spread and may even lead to eye damage. It is important to get a diagnosis from an optometrist and follow their course of treatment, which usually starts with medicated eye drops.
- Blepharitis: An inflammation of the eyelash hairs leading to swelling and pain around the eye can also cause discharge because of abnormal oil production around the follicles. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is sometimes associated with blepharitis, which can cause foamy eye discharge, crusting on the eyelids, and yellow or green pus from the eyes.
- Keratitis: There are several types of keratitis: bacterial, fungal, amoebic, photo, and herpetic. Bacterial keratitis is a corneal infection that develops quickly, and if left untreated, it can cause blindness. Excessive discharge that is an unusual color is one sign of bacterial keratitis. Fungal keratitis also infects the cornea, and it has similar symptoms as bacterial keratitis, but is caused by one of three types of fungus. Herpes keratitis is caused by a viral infection of herpes simplex, the same virus that causes cold sores (type I) or genital herpes (type II). Amoebic keratitis is an infection caused by an amoeba, usually acanthamoeba. Photokeratitis is caused by too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and it is a bit like a sunburn on the cornea.
- Stye: This is a clogged meibomian gland, usually at the base of the eyelid. These are typically infected eyelash follicles, which may require medical treatment, but they often go away on their own. Styes may look like pimples on the margin of the eyelid, and they can be painful or tender. Discomfort during blinking is also a sign of a stye, along with some extra discharge.
- Eye injury or trauma: Anything from cosmetics and perfume to being hit in the eye can cause injury or trauma to the structures of this organ. One sign that your eye is injured is excessive rheum or discharge. If this occurs while you are awake, looks more like pus, or contains blood, see an eye specialist immediately.
- Corneal ulcer: Sometimes, the cornea (the membrane over the top of the eye) becomes infected. This ulcerous spot can cause white discharge. Excessive tearing, pain in the eye, redness, trouble opening the eye, and sensitivity to light are all symptoms associated with corneal ulcers. Antibiotic treatment can get rid of this condition. If left untreated, corneal ulcers cause lasting damage and may lead to a corneal transplant.
- Dacryocystitis: This is a blocked tear duct, which can be quite painful. It will look like a tender, swollen lump under the inner eyelid. Water eyes, sticky eye discharge, redness, blurry vision, and pain are all associated symptoms. It may go away on its own, but speak with an ophthalmologist for an appropriate diagnosis.
Preventing or Managing Eye Discharge at Home
You may be tempted to rub or pick at your eyes in the morning to remove these clumps of discharge or crust, but this can increase your risk of infection. Sticking something in your eye accidentally can also lead to discharge, so if you get cosmetics or dirt in your eye by accident, wash your eye out with water or saline drops, and do not wipe your eyes with your fingers.
Keep your hands clean, so when you apply makeup, put in contact lenses, or rub your eyes because you are tired, you reduce your risk of getting an eye infection. If you are concerned about the discharge from your eyes, even in the morning, soak a clean washcloth or the corner of a clean towel in warm water, then wipe the area around your eyes, eyelids, and eyelashes. This removes the gunk and feels relaxing.
Changes in Eye Discharge Indicate Changes in Your Eye Health
A small amount of discharge, especially when you wake up, is normal for everyone’s eyes. However, if your discharge changes color, amount, consistency, or frequency, you may want to speak to an optometrist, especially if this does not stop after one or two days.
If eye discharge is accompanied by pain, redness, inflammation, changes to skin texture around your eye, trouble seeing clearly, or blood, see a medical professional immediately.
Is That Morning “Eye Gunk” Normal? (January 3, 2018). University of Utah Health Center.
What Causes Eye Boogers? (February 2, 2018). Medical News Today.
What’s Causing My White Eye Discharge? (August 27, 2018). Healthline.
Eye Discharge (Sleep in Your Eyes). (November 2016). All About Vision.
What Is Bacterial Keratitis? (April 23, 2018). American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO).
What Is Fungal Keratitis? (December 5, 2018). American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO).
What Is Herpes Keratitis? (April 25, 2018). American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO).